Wednesday, March 01, 2017

Fetal Sex Plays Role in Immunity of Pregnant Women



Study found out that Women tend to react with stronger responses to immune challenges while pregnant with girls than with boys. 


A team of scientists at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center followed 80 pregnant women (46 with male and 34 with female fetuses) across the course of their pregnancy and examined whether women exhibited different levels of immune markers called cytokines based on fetal sex.

Studies suggest that fetal sex plays a role in maternal physiological processes during pregnancy including glycemic control, blood pressure, and cortisol regulation. However, data examining fetal sex-specific differences in maternal immune parameters is lacking. In the current study, serum levels of interleukin(IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α as well as LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β by PBMCs incubated for 24 h were assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy among 80 women (46 with male and 34 with female fetuses). Linear mixed models showed that women carrying females versus males exhibited greater stimulated production of IL-6 at each timepoint (ps ⩽ 0.03), TNF-α in early pregnancy (p = 0.04), and IL-1β in mid- and late pregnancy (ps ⩽ 0.05). Despite changes in serum levels of IL-8 (p = 0.002) and TNF-α (p < 0.0001) across pregnancy, no differences in any serum cytokines were observed in relation to fetal sex (ps > 0.85). In conclusion, in pregnant women, those carrying female versus male fetuses exhibited greater stimulated cytokine production across pregnancy. Differential inflammatory responses could affect maternal health and fetal development. Fetal sex should be considered as a factor in studies of maternal inflammation. These findings have relevance both clinically and conceptually. For example, maternal asthma is exacerbated among women carrying female versus male fetuses. In addition, data on associations between fetal sex and maternal immune function among women with health conditions (e.g., preeclampsia) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth) would be informative.

This means that women carrying female fetuses exhibited a heightened inflammatory response when their immune system was challenged, compared to women carrying male fetuses.

Reference: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159116301945
Image credits : Scott , Michelle Tribe - wikimedia commons

Monday, August 01, 2016

First Aid in case of severed body part

Most importantly administer first aid to the patient:

  • Check for responsiveness and breathing.
  • Give first aid for bleeding.
  • Monitor and treat for shock if present.
  • Care for amputated part(s): Clean amputated part, if necessary, with sterile or clean water, then cover and wrap in sterile dressing. Place in a sealed plastic bag. Place bag in another container with chilled or ice water. Label with victim's name.
  • Keep the amputated part with the victim at all times.

Monday, July 25, 2016

First Aid in case of Bleeding wound

First Aid in case of Bleeding wound


How you can help
  • Clean the wound with warm soapy water and allow it to penetrate the puncture track because tetanus spores may be trapped deep in the wound.
  • Allow the wound to dry thoroughly in the air before covering it.
  • If a protective dressing is needed, use a porous adhesive dressing and change it daily to keep the wound healthy and dry.

Thursday, July 14, 2016

First Aid in case of foregin body in ear and nose

ചെവിയിൽ എന്തെക്കിലും കടന്നാൽ , മൂക്കിൽ എന്തെക്കിലും അകപ്പെട്ടാൽ . First aid in case something get in to your nose or ear.

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Everything about Milk

Milk: Sources, Kinds, and Benefits 
Milk is a pale liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose.
 
Milk Sources:
Milk can be obtained from many different sources, such as goats, cattle, buffalos, and camels; The females of all mammal species can by definition produce milk, but cow's milk dominates commercial production. Aside from cattle, many kinds of livestock provide milk used by humans for dairy products. These animals include buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, donkey, horse, reindeer and yak. The first four respectively produced about 11%, 2%, 1.4% and 0.2% of all milk worldwide in 2011.
Milk Types:
Raw milk:
Raw milk is milk that has not been pasteurized. While proponents have stated that there are benefits to consuming raw milk, the medical community has warned of the dangers of consuming unpasteurized milk. Availability and regulation of raw milk vary from region to region. 
Dried Milk:
The fresh milk is evaporated to dryness by manufacturing process while maintaining most of the nutritional elements the fresh milk holds, and with the same proportions. Still, some vitamins and key minerals may be added to the dried milk such as vitamin D.
The dried or powered milk is available as full-fat dry milk with 6-9 month shelf life, or fat-free with two-year shelf life. Having opened the pack, you should store the dried milk in cool, dry place, as well as protecting it against moisture and sun beams.
Long-Term Milk:
The fresh milk is exposed to a high temperature to have it pasteurized, and then it is packed in specially-made packs. The expiry term of that type of milk reaches as many as six months, before it is used outside the refrigerator. After it is used, the pack should be stored in the refrigerator and be used within a week's time.
Fresh Milk:
After the milk is milked and collected, it is pasteurized, and then it is stored cool. It should be stored since the beginning of the production until its expiration which does not go beyond a week as it is spoiled fast.
Domestic Condensed Milk:
Great amounts of sugar are added to the pasteurized fresh milk haveits form condensed. It is rich in fats or milk cream, and it is not considered one of the useful milk types, or one of the milk substitutes. It holds a great deal of sugar and calories. It is used in the dessert ingredients, and it is stored in a cool, dry place. It has 12-month shelf life.
A2 milk:
cow's milk that contains only the A2 type of beta-casein protein rather than the more common A1 protein commonly found in regular milk.
Milk-derived Products:
  • Milk, Yoghurt, and Hard White Cheese:
       They are products made of fresh milk; hence, they have the same milk composition. They also contain the same nutritional elements, but they differ in terms of the amounts of yeast and water.
If these products contain flavors such as strawberry or chocolate flavor, the proportion of calories only increases without any change in the other properties; providing these additives are within the allowed proportions.
  • Creamy Cheese, cream, butter, ice cream, and Labneh: 
They are other products derived from milk, and they are fat substitutes. They are manufactured from the milk fats with little amount of milk. They are not milk substitutes, and they cannot replace it.
Milk Health Benefits:
  • Building and Maintaining bone and teeth.
  • Preventing cardiac diseases
  • Keeping the blood pressure at a normal rate.
  • Protecting against some types of cancer such as colon cancer.
  • Diminishing the likelihood of developing the diabetes.
  • Keeping and improving the performance of the nerve system.
  • Helping in growth
  • Improving the digestion process.
  • Boosting the immunity.
  • Protecting the eyesight.
  • Maintaining the skin, hair, and delicate membranes.
  • Treating the dehydration.
  • Providing the body with energy. 
Groups In Need of Drinking More Milk:
  • Neonates: it is recommended depending on the mother's milk or the artificial milk meant for the breast-fed.
  • The elderly: as we grow in age, the skin or kidney health condition changes, this in turn weakens its ability to produce vitamin D and change it into the active or effective formula.
  • The pregnant and those breast-feeding: are mostly in need of many vitamins, such as vitamin D which the children need to absorb the calcium and form bones.
  • Fractures and after operations.
Factors Affecting Benefiting from the Milk:
  • Having beverages and food containing caffeine, such as fizzy beverages, tea, coffee, and chocolate reduces the absorbing of calcium.
  • Not getting enough intakes of vitamin C rich fruits such as citruses, as it is instrumental in absorbing the calcium from the milk. 
Breaking down the Nutritional Elements in a Cup of Milk:
Nutrients​ Low-Fat Milk ​ Fat-Free Milk ​ Full-Fat Milk​
 Calories​
 102 ​
86 ​ 146​
Fats​
 2mg ​
0mg ​ 8 mg​
Cholesterol ​
12mg ​ 5mg​  24mg​
Sodium ​
107mg ​ 128mg ​ 98mg​
Carbohydrates ​ 13mg ​ 12mg ​ 13mg​
Sugar ​ 13mg ​ 12mg ​ 13mg​
Proteins ​ 8mg ​ 8mg​  8mg​
Dietary ​ 0mg​  0mg ​ 0mg​
Daily Needs of Calcium and Vitamin D for all the Age Groups:
Age Group
  
Calcium Need
Milligram/Day
Vitamin "D" Need
Microgram/ Day
   ​​Daily Milk Amount   
       Birth- Six months
200 
10   
800-1200 mil/Daily
Six Months- Year
260
10 
800-1200 mil/Daily
1-3 years
700
15
Two Cups
4-8 years
1000
15
Three Cups
9-18 years
1300
15
Three Cups
19-50 years
1000
15
Two Cups
51-70- years (Women)
1200
15
Three Cups

 
Cow's milk (whole)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 252 kJ (60 kcal)

5.26 g
Sugars 5.26 g
5.26 g

3.25 g
Saturated 1.865 g
Monounsaturated 0.812 g
Polyunsaturated 0.195 g

3.22 g
Tryptophan 0.075 g
Threonine 0.143 g
Isoleucine 0.165 g
Leucine 0.265 g
Lysine 0.140 g
Methionine 0.075 g
Cystine 0.017 g
Phenylalanine 0.147 g
Tyrosine 0.152 g
Valine 0.192 g
Arginine 0.075 g
Histidine 0.075 g
Alanine 0.103 g
Aspartic acid 0.237 g
Glutamic acid 0.648 g
Glycine 0.075 g
Proline 0.342 g
Serine 0.107 g

Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(6%)
46 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(4%)
0.044 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(15%)
0.183 mg
Vitamin B12
(19%)
0.45 μg
Choline
(3%)
14.3 mg
Vitamin D
(0%)
2 IU

Minerals
Calcium
(11%)
113 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
10 mg
Potassium
(3%)
132 mg
Sodium
(3%)
43 mg

Other constituents
Water 88.32 g

100 mL corresponds to 103 g.
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
 Content courtesy en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk and mohksa

Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams
Constituents Unit Cow Goat Sheep Water
buffalo
Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1
Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5
Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0
----Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2
----Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7
----Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
Carbohydrate (i.e the sugar form of lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8
Calcium mg 120 100 170 195
Energy kcal 66 60 95 110
kJ 275 253 396 463      

Sunday, February 08, 2015

A precise stem cell signaling process

Researchers at Sanford-Burnham have discovered a precise stem cell signaling process that can lead to intestinal tumors if disrupted. The findings add to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to tumors and identify specific stem cell molecules that may be targeted to prevent the onset, progression, and recurrence of intestinal cancers.

“Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are responsible for cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance,” said Jorge Moscat, Ph.D., program director of our Cell Death and Survival Networks Program. “Our new research provides a better understanding of the signaling cascades that regulate stem cells and is essential for the design of new and more-efficacious therapies for cancer.”
“We have shown that protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) normally inhibits stem cell activity through downregulation of two signaling pathways: beta-catenin and Yap,” said Maria Diaz-Meco, Ph.D., senior co-author of the paper and professor in the Program. “Previously, our lab showed that PKC-zeta acts as a tumor suppressor that maintains homeostasis of intestinal stem cells. The current study reveals the mechanism by which this occurs.”
The intestine is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells that are renewed every 3 to 5 days. The pool of cells that replace these epithelial cells—intestinal stem cells—needs to be regulated to maintain homeostasis.
“Disturbing the homeostasis of the stem cell pool can go two ways—it can either reduce intestinal epithelial cell regeneration or increase the proliferation of stem cells,” said Diaz-Meco. “Cancer is produced by the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that control central mechanisms of cell growth. Stem cells are a ‘permanent’ population in the intestine and a reservoir for those mutations. Therefore, if stem cell activity is increased, as in the case of intestines deficient in PKC-zeta, then the likelihood of developing tumors is much higher, and when the tumor is initiated it becomes more aggressive.”
Using a genetically engineered mouse model for intestinal cancer, the research team found that this process is kept under control by direct phosphorylation by PKC-zeta of two essential tumor promoters: beta-catenin and Yap.
“Importantly, we confirmed the tumorigenic profiles of PKC-zeta, beta-catenin, and Yap in human colon adenocarcinoma samples. The correlation of human results with our in-vivo mouse studies strongly suggests that Yap and beta-catenin are potential targets of PKC-zeta function and potential targets for new anti-cancer therapies.
“Our results offer new possibilities for the prevention and treatment of intestinal cancers by blocking the pathways that lead to tumors,” said Moscat. “They also highlight a new strategy to promote intestinal regeneration after acute or chronic damage, such as that triggered by chemotherapy and radiation.”

“Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are responsible for cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance,” said Jorge Moscat, Ph.D., program director of our Cell Death and Survival Networks Program. “Our new research provides a better understanding of the signaling cascades that regulate stem cells and is essential for the design of new and more-efficacious therapies for cancer.”
“We have shown that protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) normally inhibits stem cell activity through downregulation of two signaling pathways: beta-catenin and Yap,” said Maria Diaz-Meco, Ph.D., senior co-author of the paper and professor in the Program. “Previously, our lab showed that PKC-zeta acts as a tumor suppressor that maintains homeostasis of intestinal stem cells. The current study reveals the mechanism by which this occurs.”
The intestine is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells that are renewed every 3 to 5 days. The pool of cells that replace these epithelial cells—intestinal stem cells—needs to be regulated to maintain homeostasis.
“Disturbing the homeostasis of the stem cell pool can go two ways—it can either reduce intestinal epithelial cell regeneration or increase the proliferation of stem cells,” said Diaz-Meco. “Cancer is produced by the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that control central mechanisms of cell growth. Stem cells are a ‘permanent’ population in the intestine and a reservoir for those mutations. Therefore, if stem cell activity is increased, as in the case of intestines deficient in PKC-zeta, then the likelihood of developing tumors is much higher, and when the tumor is initiated it becomes more aggressive.”
Using a genetically engineered mouse model for intestinal cancer, the research team found that this process is kept under control by direct phosphorylation by PKC-zeta of two essential tumor promoters: beta-catenin and Yap.
“Importantly, we confirmed the tumorigenic profiles of PKC-zeta, beta-catenin, and Yap in human colon adenocarcinoma samples. The correlation of human results with our in-vivo mouse studies strongly suggests that Yap and beta-catenin are potential targets of PKC-zeta function and potential targets for new anti-cancer therapies.
“Our results offer new possibilities for the prevention and treatment of intestinal cancers by blocking the pathways that lead to tumors,” said Moscat. “They also highlight a new strategy to promote intestinal regeneration after acute or chronic damage, such as that triggered by chemotherapy and radiation.”
- See more at: http://beaker.sanfordburnham.org/2015/02/new-study-sheds-light-on-cancer-stem-cell-regulation/#sthash.QktTbsjw.dpuf

Reference:
  1. Victoria Llado, Yuki Nakanishi, Angeles Duran, Miguel Reina-Campos, Phillip M. Shelton, Juan F. Linares, Tomoko Yajima, Alex Campos, Pedro Aza-Blanc, Michael Leitges, Maria T. Diaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat. Repression of Intestinal Stem Cell Function and Tumorigenesis through Direct Phosphorylation of β-Catenin and Yap by PKCζ. Cell Reports, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.01.007
Researchers at Sanford-Burnham have discovered a precise stem cell signaling process that can lead to intestinal tumors if disrupted. The findings add to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to tumors and identify specific stem cell molecules that may be targeted to prevent the onset, progression, and recurrence of intestinal cancers. - See more at: http://beaker.sanfordburnham.org/2015/02/new-study-sheds-light-on-cancer-stem-cell-regulation/#sthash.QktTbsjw.dpuf
Researchers at Sanford-Burnham have discovered a precise stem cell signaling process that can lead to intestinal tumors if disrupted. The findings add to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to tumors and identify specific stem cell molecules that may be targeted to prevent the onset, progression, and recurrence of intestinal cancers. - See more at: http://beaker.sanfordburnham.org/2015/02/new-study-sheds-light-on-cancer-stem-cell-regulation/#sthash.QktTbsjw.dpuf

Thursday, October 23, 2014

First Aids - CPR - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPR

 
CPR or Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly known as CPR, is an emergency procedure performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive with no breathing or abnormal breathing, for example, agonal respirations. Combination of rescue lungs, by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, and heart by chest compressions (between rib bone and Spinal) where blood pumps to vital parts of the body, especially the brain.
 


 


The following steps are based on instructions from the American Heart Association.
  1. Check for responsiveness. Shake or tap the person gently. See if the person moves or makes a noise. Shout, "Are you OK?"
  2. Call Paramedics if there is no response. Shout for help and send someone to call paramedics. 
  3. Carefully place the person on their back. If there is a chance the person has a spinal injury, two people should move the person to prevent the head and neck from twisting.
  4. Perform chest compressions:
    • Place the heel of one hand on the breastbone -- right between the nipples.
    • Place the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand.
    • Position your body directly over your hands.
    • Give 30 chest compressions. These compressions should be fast and hard. Press down about 2 inches into the chest. Each time, let the chest rise completely. Count the 30 compressions.
  5. Open the airway. Lift up the chin with two fingers. At the same time, tilt the head by pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
  6. Look, listen, and feel for breathing. Place your ear close to the person's mouth and nose. Watch for chest movement. Feel for breath on your cheek.
  7. If the person is not breathing or has trouble breathing:
    • Cover their mouth tightly with your mouth.
    • Pinch the nose closed.
    • Keep the chin lifted and head tilted.
    • Give 2 rescue breaths. Each breath should take about a second and make the chest rise.
  8. Continue CPR (30 chest compressions followed by 2 breaths, then repeat) until the person recovers or help arrives.
If the person starts breathing again, place them in the recovery position. Periodically recheck for breathing until help arrives.

courtesy : Wikipedia , Wikimedia Commons  .
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiopulmonary_resuscitation

Wednesday, August 06, 2014

Tahini or Grinded sesame seeds

Tahini with lemon and garlic

Health benefits of Tahini

Tahini is a paste that is made by finely grinding sesame seeds in order to release their oil content. it is a staple of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cooking. It's perhaps most notable for its essential role in making hummus, although its uses go far beyond that iconic dip.

 How its made 

Tahini may be made from hulled or unhulled sesame seeds.  The tahini made with unhulled seeds is richer in vitamins and minerals but it is darker and has a stronger flavour, so it may not suit some recipes.  Because the sesame seeds are ground into a paste, tahini is easy to digest, and within half an hour of consuming it, the body is provided with a balanced supply of energy, vitamins, and minerals.
tahini can get pricey at the grocery store, and it's sometimes bitter or rancid after its long wait on the shelf. The good news is you can make this pantry staple at home for a fraction of the cost — and chances are it will taste better, too! You only need two ingredients: sesame seeds and oil.
Hummus and ful topped with tahini

 

Health Benefits of Tahini

Tahini is a nutritional powerhouse, being high in vitamins E, F and T, as well as vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B15, biotin, and choline.  It is also a source of vitamin A.  Tahini is also 20 percent complete protein – making it a richer protein source than milk, soya beans, sunflower seeds, and most nuts.
Tahini is one of the highest sources of methionine, an essential amino acid, and also contains lecithin, which reduces the levels of fat in the blood and also protects against environmental toxins such as nicotine.  Tahini is also high in minerals such as magnesium, potassium, iron, and phosphorus, and is an excellent source of calcium.  In fact tahini is claimed to be the best source of calcium there is and, unlike the dairy products that supply calcium in the western diet, it is not mucus forming.
Tahini is very high in oil, over 50 percent.  However, despite being high in fat, most of the oil is unsaturated fat, which is much healthier for the body.  Even though it is high in oil, tahini keeps very well and will not go rancid, even if it is not refrigerated after opening.  This is because sesame seeds contain the natural preservatives sesamin and sesamol, which stabilise it.


 

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

ലോക വൃക്കദിനം

ലോക വൃക്കദിനം 
എല്ലാ കൊല്ലവും മാര്‍ച്ച്‌ മാസത്തെ രണ്ടാമത്തെ വ്യാഴം ആണ് ലോക വൃക്ക ദിനം ആയി ആചരിക്കുന്നതു. ഇത് ജനങ്ങളില്‍ വൃക്ക രോഗങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ചുള്ള അവബോധം വളര്‍ത്താന്‍ ലക്ഷ്യം വെച്ചുള്ള ഒരു പരിപാടി ആണ് . 

പ്രവർത്തനം
സങ്കീർണ്ണ ഘടനയോടുകൂടിയ വിവിധതരത്തിലുള്ള ധർമ്മങ്ങളുള്ള ആന്തരീക അവയവങ്ങളാണ് വൃക്കകൾ . . യൂറിയ പോലുള്ള അപദ്രവ്യങ്ങളും ധാതു-ലവണങ്ങളും രക്തത്തിൽ നിന്നും നീക്കം ചെയ്ത് ശരീര ദ്രവങ്ങളുടെ ജൈവപരമായ സന്തുലിതാവസ്ഥ നിലനിർത്തുകയാണ് വൃക്കകളുടെ ഏറ്റവും പ്രധാനപ്പെട്ട ധർമ്മം. മനുഷ്യന്റെ മാത്രമല്ല, പരിണാമത്തിലൂടെ വൃക്കകൾ ലഭിച്ച എല്ലാ ജീവിവർഗ്ഗങ്ങളുടേയും ശരീരത്തിൽ നിന്നും മാലിന്യങ്ങൾ അരിച്ച് പുറത്ത് കളയുന്ന പ്രക്രിയ ചെയ്യുന്ന ആന്തരികാവയവം ആണ്‌ വൃക്ക എന്ന് അറിയപ്പെടുന്നത്. ശരീരത്തിലെ രക്തം,ആഹാരം, വെള്ളം തുടങ്ങിയവയിൽ നിന്നും ആവശ്യമുള്ള പോഷകങ്ങൾ സ്വീകരിക്കുകയും മാലിന്യങ്ങളേയും ആവശ്യമില്ലാത്ത മറ്റ് വസ്തുക്കളേയും പുറത്ത് കളഞ്ഞ് ശരീരം വൃത്തിയായി സൂക്ഷിക്കുന്നതിൽ പ്രധാന പങ്ക് വഹിക്കുന്നത് വൃക്കകളാണ്‌. 

Celebrated on the second Thursday in March, the mission of World Kidney Day is to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to our overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its associated health problems worldwide.

 About Your Kidneys
The kidneys are complicated and amazing organs that have numerous essential biological roles.
The main job of your kidneys is to remove toxins and excess water from our blood. Kidneys also help to control our blood pressure, to produce red blood cells and to keep our bones healthy.
Each roughly the size of your fist, kidneys are located deep in the abdomen, beneath the rib cage.
Your kidneys control blood stream levels of many minerals and molecules including sodium and potassium, and help to control blood acidity. Every day your kidneys carefully control the salt and water in your body so that your blood pressure remains the same.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

About Ayurveda

Ayurveda (Sanskrit: आयुर्वेद; Āyurveda, "the knowledge for long life"; /ˌaɪ.ərˈveɪdə/) or ayurvedic medicine is a Hindu system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India, i.e., in the mid-second millennium BCE. The Suśruta Saṃhitā and the Charaka Saṃhitā, encyclopedias of medicine compiled from various sources from the mid-first millennium BCE to about 500 CE, are among the foundational works of Ayurveda. Over the following centuries, ayurvedic practitioners developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments. Current practices derived (or reportedly derived) from Ayurvedic medicine are regarded as part of complementary and alternative medicine.                                                                         Dhanvantari (धन्वंतरी), known as an avatar of Vishnu is the Hindu god associated with Ayurveda.
File:Dhanvantari-at-Ayurveda-expo.jpg
Safety concerns have been raised about Ayurveda, with two U.S. studies finding about 20 percent of Ayurvedic Indian-manufactured patent medicines contained toxic levels of heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic. Other concerns include the use of herbs containing toxic compounds and the lack of quality control in Ayurvedic facilities.

Approach
The three doṣas and the 5 elements from which they are composed.

At an early period, Ayurveda adopted the physics of the "five elements" (Devanāgarī: [महा] पञ्चभूत); earth (Pṛthvī), water (Jala), fire (Agni), air (Vāyu) and space (Ākāśa) that compose the universe, including the human body. Ayurveda describes seven types of tissues of the body, known as the saptadhātu (Devanāgarī: सप्तधातु). They are plasma (rasa dhātu), blood (rakta dhātu), flesh (māṃsa dhātu), adipose (medha dhātu), bone (asthi dhātu), marrow and nervous (majja dhātu), and reproductive (semen or female reproductive tissue) (śukra dhātu). Ayurvedic literature deals elaborately with measures of healthful living during the entire span of life and its various phases. Ayurveda stresses a balance of three elemental energies or humors: Vāyu / vāta (air & space – "wind"), pitta (fire & water – "bile") and kapha (water & earth – "phlegm"). According to ayurvedic medical theory, these three substances — doṣas (Devanāgarī: दोष)—are important for health, because when they exist in equal quantities, the body will be healthy, and when they are not in equal amounts, the body will be unhealthy in various ways. One ayurvedic theory asserts that each human possesses a unique combination of doṣas that define that person's temperament and characteristics. Another view, also present in the ancient literature, asserts that humoral equality is identical to health, and that persons with preponderances of humours are proportionately unhealthy, and that this is not their natural temperament. In ayurveda, unlike the Sāṅkhya philosophical system, there are 20 fundamental qualities, guṇa (Devanāgarī: गुण, meaning qualities) inherent in all substances. While surgery and surgical instruments were employed from a very early period, Ayurvedic theory asserts that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion, and proper excretion lead to vitality. Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, and meditation.

The practice of panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पंचकर्म‌) is a therapeutic way of eliminating toxic elements from the body.

As early as the Mahābhārata, ayurveda was called "the science of eight components" (Skt. aṣṭāṅga, Devanāgarī: अष्टांग), a classification that became canonical for ayurveda. They are:

    Internal medicine (Kāya-cikitsā)
    Paediatrics (Kaumārabhṛtyam)
    Surgery (Śalya-cikitsā)
    Opthalmology and ENT (Śālākya tantra)
    Psychiatry has been called Bhūta vidyā .
    Toxicology (Agadatantram)
    Prevention of diseases and improving immunity and rejuvenation (rasayana)
    Aphrodisiacs and improving health of progeny (Vajikaranam)

In Hindu mythology, the origin of ayurvedic medicine is attributed to Dhanvantari, the physician of the gods.
Practices
Several philosophers in India combined religion and traditional medicine—notable examples being that of Hinduism and ayurveda. Shown in the image is the philosopher Nagarjuna—known chiefly for his doctrine of the Madhyamaka (middle path)—who wrote medical works The Hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others.
Balance

Hinduism and Buddhism have been an influence on the development of many of ayurveda's central ideas – particularly its fascination with balance, known in Buddhism as Madhyathmaka (Devanāgarī: माध्यात्मिक). Balance is emphasized; suppressing natural urges is seen to be unhealthy, and doing so claimed to lead to illness. However, people are cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure. For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake, sleep, sexual intercourse.
Diagnosis

Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using all five senses. Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech. The study of the lethal points or marman marma is of special importance. Ayurvedic doctors regard physical and mental existence together with personality as a unit, each element having the capacity to influence the others. One of the fundamental aspects of ayurvedic medicine is to take this into account during diagnosis and therapy.
Hygiene

Hygiene is a central practice of ayurvedic medicine. Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing.
Treatments
Head massage is used to apply oils.

Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments. Hundreds of plant-based medicines are employed, including cardamom and cinnamon. Some animal products may also be used, for example milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are used both for consumption and for external use. Minerals, including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold are also consumed as prescribed. This practice of adding minerals to herbal medicine is known as rasa shastra.

In some cases, alcohol was used as a narcotic for the patient undergoing an operation. The advent of Islam introduced opium as a narcotic. Both oil and tar were used to stop bleeding.[10] Traumatic bleeding was said to be stopped by four different methods: ligation of the blood vessel; cauterisation by heat; using different herbal or animal preparations locally which could facilitate clotting; and different medical preparations which could constrict the bleeding or oozing vessels. Various oils could be used in a number of ways, including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing, head massage, and prescribed application to infected areas.
Srotas

Ensuring the proper functions of channels (srotas) that transport fluids from one point to another is a vital goal of ayurvedic medicine, because the lack of healthy srotas is thought to cause rheumatism, epilepsy, autism, paralysis, convulsions, and insanity. Practitioners induce sweating and prescribe steam-based treatments as a means to open up the channels and dilute the doshas that cause the blockages and lead to disease.
History
The mantra Om mani padme hum written on rocks. Chanting mantras has been a feature of ayurveda since the Atharvaveda, the vedic spiritual text, was compiled.

One view of the early history of ayurveda asserts that around 1500 BC, ayurveda's fundamental and applied principles got organized and enunciated. In this historical construction, Ayurveda traces its origins to the Vedas, Atharvaveda in particular, and is connected to Hindu religion. Atharvaveda (one of the four most ancient books of Indian knowledge, wisdom and culture) contains 114 hymns or formulations for the treatment of diseases. Ayurveda originated in and developed from these hymns. In this sense, ayurveda is considered by some to have divine origin. Indian medicine has a long history, and is one of the oldest organised systems of medicine. Its earliest concepts are set out in the sacred writings called the Vedas, especially in the metrical passages of the Atharvaveda, which may possibly date as far back as the 2nd millennium BC. According to a later writer, the system of medicine was received by Dhanvantari from Brahma, and Dhanvantari was deified as the god of medicine. In later times his status was gradually reduced, until he was credited with having been an earthly king named Divodasa.
Cataract in human eye – magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery was known to the physician Sushruta in the early centuries of the first millennium AD, and was performed with a special tool called the jabamukhi salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.

Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified "fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and skin diseases (including leprosy)". Treatment of complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones, also ensued during this period.



 Plastic surgery, couching (a form of cataract surgery), puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread. The Charaka Samhita text is arguably the principal classic reference. It gives emphasis to the triune nature of each person: body care, mental regulation, and spiritual/consciousness refinement.

Other early works of ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka. The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains references to the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript, dated to the 6th century AD. The Bower manuscript is of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asia. Vagbhata, the son of a senior doctor by the name of Simhagupta, also compiled his works on traditional medicine. Early ayurveda had a school of physicians and a school of surgeons. Tradition holds that the text Agnivesh tantra, written by the sage Agnivesh, a student of the sage Bharadwaja, influenced the writings of ayurveda.

The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337–422 AD) wrote about the health care system of the Gupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine, also visible in the works of Charaka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped. Madhava (fl. 700), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300), and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (ca. 750). These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.

British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasty being performed by native methods. Reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world in 1815. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western World.
Current status
A typical ayurvedic Pharmacy, Rishikesh.
India

According to some sources up to 80 percent of people in India use some form of traditional medicines, a category which includes Ayurveda.

In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aims to standardize qualifications for ayurveda and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by the Parliament of India. In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional ayurvedic medicine. The Indian government supports research and teaching in ayurveda through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalize traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities. The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) has been set up to research the subject. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of 1200 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as ayurveda, unani and siddha.[36][37] The library also has 50 traditional ayurveda books digitized and available online.

Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971, under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in ayurveda. Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes.
Sri Lanka

The Sri Lankan tradition of Ayurveda is very similar to the Indian tradition. Practitioners of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka refer to texts on the subject written in Sanskrit, which are common to both countries. However, they do differ in some aspects, particularly in the herbs used.

The Sri Lankan government has established a Ministry of Indigenous Medicine (established in 1980) to revive and regulate the practice within the country The Institute of Indigenous Medicine (affiliated to the University of Colombo currently offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and MD degrees in the practice of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery, and similar degrees in unani medicine.

There are currently 62 Ayurvedic Hospitals and 208 central dispensaries in the public system, and they served almost 3 million people (approximately 11 percent of Sri Lanka's total population) in 2010. In total there are currently approximately 20,000 registered practitioners of Ayurveda in the country.

Many Sri Lankan hotels and resorts offer Ayurveda themed packages, where guests are treated to a wide array of Ayurveda treatments during their stay.
Outside South Asia

Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialization of ayurvedic medicine has raised ethical and legal issues; in some cases, this damages the reputation of ayurvedic medicine outside India.
Scientific appraisal
In studies in mice, the leaves of Terminalia arjuna have been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

As a traditional medicine, many ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials. In India, research in ayurveda is undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes.[48] A systematic review of ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits. A review of ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence for ayurveda was not convincing, though some herbs seemed promising.

Two varieties of Salvia have been tested in small trials; one trial provided evidence that Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) may improve word recall in young adults, and another provided evidence that Salvia officinalis (Common sage) may improve symptoms in Alzheimer's patients. Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants. Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties.
Safety

Rasa shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbs, may have toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic.

Adverse reactions to herbs due to their pharmacology are described in traditional ayurvedic texts, but ayurvedic practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and that reliable information on herbal toxicity is not readily available. And there is communication gap between modern medicine practitioners and Ayurvedic practitioners

According to a 1990 study on ayurvedic medicines in India, 41 percent of the products tested contained arsenic, and 64 percent contained lead and mercury.

A 2004 study found toxic levels of heavy metals in 20 percent of ayurvedic preparations made in South Asia and sold in the Boston area, and concluded that ayurvedic products posed serious health risks and should be tested for heavy-metal contamination.

A 2008 study of more than 230 products found that approximately 20 percent of remedies (and 40 percent of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the Internet from both US and Indian suppliers contained lead, mercury or arsenic.

In 2012 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Washington states in its report that Ayurvedic drugs has links to lead poisoning on the basis of some cases presented where some pregnant woman had taken Ayurvedic drugs toxic materials were found in their blood.

Ayurvedic proponents believe that the toxicity of these materials is reduced through purification processes such as samskaras or shodhanas (for metals), similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques. However, these products have nonetheless caused severe lead poisoning and other toxic effects.

Due to these concerns, the Government of India ruled that ayurvedic products must specify their metallic content directly on the labels of the product, but, writing on the subject for Current Science, a publication of the Indian Academy of Sciences, M. S. Valiathan noted that "the absence of post-market surveillance and the paucity of test laboratory facilities [in India] make the quality control of Ayurvedic medicines exceedingly difficult at this time.

Approach


The three doṣas and the 5 elements from which they are composed.


Several philosophers in India combined religion and traditional medicine—notable examples being that of Hinduism and ayurveda. Shown in the image is the philosopher Nagarjuna—known chiefly for his doctrine of the Madhyamaka (middle path)—who wrote medical works The Hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others.


Cataract in human eye – magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery was known to the physician Sushruta in the early centuries of the first millennium AD, and was performed with a special tool called the jabamukhi salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.


In studies in mice, the leaves of Terminalia arjuna have been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

courtesy : Wikipedia

Friday, August 24, 2012

Major health care event weeks in September 2012

Health Care Weeks - September 2012

Major health care events weeks across the world
Event                                            Date                        Nation                  Organization
National Asthma Week Sat 1st Sep - Thu 6th Sep 2012
[Begins In 8 Days]
Australia Asthma Foundation
Migraine Awareness Week Sun 2nd Sep - Sat 8th Sep 2012
[Begins In 9 Days]
United Kingdom Migraine Action
National Suicide Prevention Week Sun 9th Sep - Sat 15th Sep 2012
[Begins In 16 Days]
United States American Association of Suicidology
National Stroke Week Mon 10th Sep - Sun 16th Sep 2012
[Begins In 17 Days]
Australia Stroke Foundation
Sexual Health Week Mon 10th Sep - Sun 16th Sep 2012
[Begins In 17 Days]
United Kingdom FPA
Reye's Syndrome Awareness Week Sun 16th Sep - Sat 22nd Sep 2012
[Begins In 23 Days]
United States National Reye's Syndrome Foundation
National Eczema Week Sun 23rd Sep - Sat 29th Sep 2012
[Begins In 30 Days]
United Kingdom National Eczema Society